Efficiency is the concept of maximizing the value of inputs and producing the output in the most cost-effective way. Economists distinguish between three types of efficiency: productive, allocative and dynamic.
A dynamic concept is concerned with improving the productivity of an organization or individual. To improve the productivity, an entity must continuously develop and improve its manufacturing techniques. This process also involves learning and innovation. In this way, the production possibility frontier is expanded, thus lower costs over time.
Allocative efficiency is based on the optimal allocation of resources. It involves matching the supply of a product or service to the demand. For example, a fast-food outlet must consider the appropriate amount of staff and customers, and forecast the number of people in the community at a given time. The distribution of goods must also meet the consumer’s preferences.
Economic efficiency is the maximization of output for profit. An entity that has high initial production costs can use economies of scale to produce more goods at minimal production costs. However, an intervention that produces the same outcome as another, with a smaller resource allocation, is technically inefficient.
Similarly, port efficiency refers to the operational performance of a port. Port efficiency includes the operations of a port’s terminals, hinterland, and maritime operations.
Productive efficiency is a dynamic concept that focuses on the minimization of the average cost of producing a given outcome. This means that the best way to maximize the value of an intervention is to minimize the average cost of the inputs that it requires to produce the outcome.