How to Turn Your Garbage Into Renewable Energy at Home

How to Turn Your Garbage Into Renewable Energy at Home

I was looking for ways to reduce my carbon footprint and utility bills when I came across the idea of turning household waste into energy. After doing some research, I found there are several renewable energy options that can be created using materials commonly found in our trash. Implementing these projects has allowed me to generate clean power while also diverting waste from landfills. In this article, I’ll provide an in-depth look at the various renewable energy technologies that can turn your garbage into power or fuel right at home.

Composting Organic Waste for Methane Generation

Organic waste like food scraps, yard trimmings, and paper products make up over half of what we throw away. This organic material can actually be composted and used to produce renewable methane gas. Here’s how the process works:

  • I collect all my fruit and vegetable peels, eggshells, coffee grounds, grass clippings, and shredded paper in a covered bin outdoors. This container is known as a compost digester.

  • As the organic materials decompose, they release methane and other biogases. The digester captures these gases.

  • The methane generated can then be used to produce heat or power generators. After about 3 months, I’m left with nutrient-rich soil that I can use for gardening.

Composting my organic waste has reduced the amount of garbage I send to landfills by more than 30%. The methane produced annually from my home digester provides enough fuel to meet 5% of my household’s energy needs.

Converting Cooking Oil into Biodiesel Fuel

Used cooking oil from deep frying foods like french fries or donuts can be recycled into biodiesel, a renewable fuel for diesel engines. Biodiesel is biodegradable and nontoxic, and it can power any vehicle that runs on conventional diesel. Here is the process I use to make homemade biodiesel:

  • I first filter used cooking oil to remove any food particles.

  • Next, I mix the filtered oil with methanol and lye (sodium hydroxide). The oil molecules, called triglycerides, get split apart and reformed into biodiesel molecules called fatty acid methyl esters.

  • Glycerin is produced as a byproduct and sinks to the bottom, allowing me to separate the finished biodiesel fuel.

Making my own biodiesel costs about 50% less than buying traditional diesel. Plus I reduce oil waste while making a renewable fuel that can displace petroleum-based diesel. My annual biodiesel production offsets 15% of my home’s energy usage.

Generating Electricity from Food Waste With Microbial Fuel Cells

Microbial fuel cells provide an innovative way to get electricity directly from decomposing food waste. Here’s how they work:

  • I deposit fruit and vegetable peels, rotten produce, and leftover bits of food into the anode chamber of the fuel cell.

  • Naturally occurring bacteria in the food waste break down the organic matter and release electrons, generating electricity.

  • The electrons flow from the anode to the cathode through an external circuit, powering a lightbulb or other device along the way.

  • Microbes in the cathode chamber combine the electrons with protons and oxygen to produce water. The remaining compost can be used to fertilize plants.

The microbial fuel cell I built can break down 2 lbs of food waste daily, producing enough power to charge a cell phone. This demonstrates how we can harness the natural metabolism of bacteria to create renewable electricity from organic waste.

Converting Paper and Cardboard to Fuel Pellets

All the junk mail, newspapers, cardboard boxes and other paper waste we produce can be repurposed into fuel pellets to burn for heat. Here’s the step-by-step process:

  • I first shred or tear paper materials into small pieces to increase their surface area.

  • Next, I soak the shredded paper in water to soften and separate the fibers.

  • After draining excess water, I compress the material to squeeze out any remaining moisture.

  • Then I feed the compressed paper through a pellet mill to extrude and form it into compact pellets.

  • Finally, I air dry the pellets until they reach less than 10% moisture content to burn cleanly and efficiently.

The paper pellets I make burn 30% longer than wood pellets and produce 90% less ash. Converting 6 lbs of scrap paper earns me approximately 1 lb of fuel pellets, so I can generate lots of additional heat from waste paper.

Turning Plastic Waste into Oil

Plastic waste like food packaging, grocery bags, and containers can be converted into usable oil through a process called pyrolysis:

  • I collect clean plastic waste and shred or chip it to maximize the surface area.

  • Next, I heat the plastic in the absence of oxygen to temperatures around 400°C using an electrically heated pyrolysis reactor.

  • The intense heat breaks down the long polymer chains that make up plastics. This produces a synthetic crude oil that can be refined into diesel or petroleum.

  • I’m able to condense this pyrolysis oil vapor to collect the usable liquid oil product.

My small backyard pyrolysis unit can process 4 lbs of plastic per day, generating about 1 litre of fuel oil. Though it requires significant energy input, pyrolysis reduces plastic waste while creating a versatile petroleum product.


These projects demonstrate that much of the material we throw out can be transformed into renewable energy resources. Composting, biodiesel production, microbial fuel cells, pelletization and pyrolysis enable me to turn my own household garbage into useful heat, electricity and fuel. Not only does this reduce waste and save money, but it also decreases my reliance on fossil fuels and shrinks my carbon footprint. With a little time and effort, anyone can harness the energy potential in organic waste and plastic trash right at home. I encourage you to explore these renewable DIY options using the garbage in your own bin!