How to Overcome the Major Drawbacks of Wave Power

How to Overcome the Major Drawbacks of Wave Power

Wave power is a form of renewable energy that holds great potential, but also faces some significant challenges. In this article, I will provide an in-depth look at the major drawbacks of wave power technology, and explore potential solutions to overcoming these obstacles.

Inconsistency of Wave Power

One of the biggest challenges with wave power is the inconsistency of wave energy. Waves are intermittent and can vary greatly over the course of a single day.

This unpredictability makes it difficult to provide a constant source of electricity from wave power. There are a few ways to overcome this issue:

  • Combining wave power with other renewables: Using wave energy in conjunction with solar, wind, tidal or geothermal can help balance out the variability. A hybrid renewable energy system is more reliable overall.

  • Energy storage: Storing the energy captured from waves in batteries or other storage media can help smooth out variability in supply. The stored energy can be dispatched when wave power drops off.

  • Forecasting waves: Improving forecasting of wave patterns and wave height can enable better planning around wave power fluctuations. More accurate forecasting enables grid integration and management of variability.

  • New generator designs: Companies are developing innovative new designs for wave energy converters that are more responsive to variable wave movements. This can lead to steadier power output.

High Costs and Investment Requirements

Building and installing wave energy farms requires major upfront capital investment. The marine environment also leads to high operation and maintenance costs. Some ways to decrease costs include:

  • Economies of scale: Building larger wave farms can help spread out capital costs over a greater energy output. Larger scale leads to lower costs per kW generated.

  • Advances in materials: New composite materials, coatings and cathodic protection systems can extend the lifespan of wave devices, reducing replacement costs.

  • Standardized manufacturing: Standardizing the manufacturing process for wave energy converters enables mass production, reducing unit costs.

  • Government incentives: Grants, feed-in tariffs and tax credits can help offset installation costs and incentivize private investment into wave power.

Difficulties Withstanding Storms

Wave energy devices are vulnerable to major storms, hurricanes, typhoons and other extreme weather events. Several options exist to harden wave generators:

  • Storm protective features: Incorporating capabilities to submerge devices below storm waves, strengthening mooring systems, and designing components to withstand impacts can improve storm resilience.

  • Offshore substations: Having centralized connection points and substations offshore reduces the need for undersea transmission cables to reach every single device, lowering repair costs.

  • Predictive analysis: Advanced data analytics enables prediction of major storm events so operators can take protective measures.

  • Self-diagnosing electronics: Smart electronics with self-diagnosing capabilities can detect faults or damage from storms for rapid repair.

Negative Environmental Impacts

There are concerns around wave energy devices disturbing marine ecosystems and habitats. Strategies to minimize environmental footprint include:

  • Site selection: Placing wave farms away from sensitive or protected ecosystems and migratory routes helps reduce disruptions. Site studies identify optimal locations.

  • Wildlife monitoring: Before and after installation, monitoring programs assess impacts on marine mammals, fish, birds, turtles, etc. Findings inform future mitigation strategies.

  • Habitat creation: Designs that mimic natural habitats or incorporate artificial reefs can create new marine environments around devices.

  • Lower-impact designs: Improved device shapes, moorings, and anchoring systems can lessen disruption to the seafloor and aquatic life.

Difficulty Transmitting Power to Shore

One of the biggest engineering challenges is transmitting the electricity generated from offshore wave farms back to land and into the grid. Here are some potential solutions:

  • Seabed cables: High voltage undersea cables can efficiently transmit power long distances with low losses. Proper burial reduces exposure.

  • Offshore substations: As mentioned above, substations out at sea consolidate power from multiple devices prior to transmission, requiring fewer cables.

  • Wireless power transmission: Emerging technologies like laser or microwave transmission may one day remove the need for cables altogether.

  • Energy storage offshore: Storing power in large batteries offshore avoids transmission issues, with energy dispatched on demand.


While wave power technology still faces daunting challenges, the steady march of innovation brings this zero-emissions energy source closer to widespread viability every year. Costs are falling, devices are surviving harsher conditions, and impacts on marine environments are being minimized through careful design and planning. With continued research and development, wave energy could play a major role in our clean energy future.