How to Offset the High Costs and Low Efficiency of Wave Power

How to Offset the High Costs and Low Efficiency of Wave Power


Wave power holds tremendous potential as a renewable energy source, but the high costs and low efficiency of current wave energy converter (WEC) technologies have hindered its widespread adoption. In this article, I will examine the main factors behind the high costs and low efficiency of wave power and suggest potential solutions to help offset these challenges.

Understanding the High Costs

There are several key reasons why wave power systems currently have prohibitively high costs:

High Capital Costs

  • The complex, robust designs needed for WEC devices to withstand harsh ocean conditions require expensive materials like steel and concrete. Building these large structures accounts for a major part of high capital costs.

  • Deploying and installing massive WEC arrays offshore is complex and requires specialized vessels, also driving up costs.

Operation and Maintenance Costs

  • Accessing offshore WEC devices for regular maintenance and repairs is difficult and expensive without proper infrastructure.

  • The saltwater environment causes corrosion and component wear which requires frequent replacements.

Underdeveloped Supply Chain

  • The nascent wave power industry lacks economies of scale in manufacturing and a robust global supply chain, keeping costs high.

  • There is a lack of competition among WEC manufacturers and suppliers to bring down costs.

Factors Causing Low Efficiency

The conversion efficiency of wave energy by existing WECs is quite low compared to other renewables, generally less than 30%. Here are some of the factors limiting efficiency:

Inconsistent Wave Energy

  • The intermittent and irregular nature of wave energy makes consistent electricity generation challenging. Output can vary greatly based on wave sizes and frequency.

  • Having to size devices to handle maximum wave heights while operating at average conditions decreases efficiency.

Early Stage Technology

  • Most WEC devices are first-generation with only prototypes or small-scale demonstrations so far. There is much room for efficiency improvements.

  • Control systems and power take-off systems have not been optimized over multiple iterations as more mature technologies have.

Energy Losses

  • Mechanical losses from friction and damping in joints and moving parts sap away energy.

  • Hydraulic systems used to transmit power from waves undergo losses.

  • Inefficiencies in energy conversion reduce the electricity generated.

Solutions to Lower Costs and Increase Efficiency

To make wave power more viable, both reducing costs and increasing efficiency are essential. Here are some promising approaches:

Maturing Technologies and Scaling Up

  • Moving prototypes to full-scale WEC farms allows manufacturers to refine designs, improve performance, and bring down production costs.

  • Increasing manufacturing volumes will develop the supply chain and create economies of scale.

Infrastructure Development

  • Building dedicated marine staging areas and port facilities for the wave energy industry reduces offshore transportation and O&M costs.

  • Investing in transmission infrastructure helps bring offshore wave power to land efficiently.

Advanced Control Systems

  • Smarter control systems that can optimize power capture in variable sea states boost efficiency.

  • Predictive algorithms can allow pitching/yawing to match wave direction.

Energy Storage Integration

  • Coupling WECs with energy storage evens out intermittent generation allowing more consistent power output.

  • Storing energy locally offshore also avoids transmission losses to shore.


While wave power technology has great potential, reducing the current high costs and low efficiencies is critical for its advancement. Leveraging economies of scale, maturing technical designs, investing in supportive infrastructure, and integrating smart control systems and energy storage solutions can help overcome these barriers. With focused efforts to offset its drawbacks, wave power could become a major contributor to the world’s renewable energy portfolio.