How to Harness Energy From Your Own Body Heat

How to Harness Energy From Your Own Body Heat


The human body produces a tremendous amount of thermal energy that is usually lost into the environment. However, new technologies are emerging that can capture some of this waste heat and convert it into usable electricity. This article will explore the science behind human body heat and provide an overview of the methods and devices used to harness it as an energy source.

The Science of Body Heat

Every second, the human body converts energy from food into mechanical work and heat. The average adult has a metabolic rate of about 100 watts, meaning they produce 100 joules of heat energy per second. Where does all this warmth come from?

There are two primary sources of heat in the human body:

  • Cellular metabolism – At the cellular level, energy is produced by metabolizing glucose and fatty acids. This process also generates heat as a byproduct.

  • Muscle action – When muscles contract to produce motion, approximately 80% of their energy consumption is converted into heat rather than mechanical work.

So in essence, nearly all of the chemical energy from the food and beverages we consume ends up as body heat that then flows to the skin and is released into the environment.

The amount of heat energy an individual produces can vary substantially based on factors like:

  • Size – Larger people have more tissue and cellular metabolism.

  • Age & health – Younger, fit individuals tend to have higher metabolic rates.

  • Activity level – Vigorous exercise can increase heat production dramatically.

But even at rest, the average adult male still puts out approximately 100 watts of radiant thermal power.

Methods for Harvesting Body Heat

There are several techniques that have been investigated for harvesting energy from human body heat:

Wearable thermoelectric generators

Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) can produce current when one side is warmer than the other, thanks to a phenomenon called the Seebeck effect. Wearable TEGs can take advantage of the temperature difference between body heat and the ambient environment. These devices are mounted in clothes or attached directly to the skin.

Thermoelectric generator diagram

Early prototypes have shown the ability to produce milliwatts of power, with potential applications like charging small electronic devices. However, there are challenges in making comfortable TEG devices that can endure body movements and moisture. Ongoing research is focused on novel materials and design optimizations.

Biomechanical energy harvesting

While we often think of body heat as a waste product, the movement of our bodies also represents a source of kinetic energy. Biomechanical energy harvesting devices can capture and transform some of this motion into usable electricity.

Approaches include:

  • Piezoelectric materials – Certain crystals generate current when mechanically deformed. These can be integrated into clothes or shoes.
  • Electromagnetic induction – Generators with magnets and coils can harness energy from limb movements.
  • Triboelectric nanogenerators – Layers of materials can create charge separation through contact electrification.

The amount of power produced is still modest, but the technology is promising for self-charging wearable electronics.

Thermoelectric co-generation

At a larger scale, it may even be possible to repurpose the prodigious amount of heat energy lost from the human body during everyday activities. For example, office buildings could pipe heat from human occupants into thermoelectric cogeneration systems that simultaneously produce electricity and useful heat. This possibility is still in the early conceptual stages.

Practical Considerations

While wasting less energy is generally a good thing, there are some practical factors to keep in mind when evaluating harvesting body heat:

  • The achievable power is modest, on the order of microwatts to single-digit milliwatts. This limits applications to lower power devices.

  • Existing prototypes involve trade-offs between wearability, efficiency, and durability that need further development.

  • Surrounding environmental conditions substantially affect heat flow. Colder exteriors improve heat capture.

  • Safety is paramount. Thermal regulation is vital for health, so high efficiency heat capture may not be advisable.

Nonetheless, the vision of powering electronics through a tiny slice of your own metabolically generated warmth is tantalizing. With further advances, the technologies highlighted here may find useful niches. The human body remains an amazingly underutilized energy resource.


While the bulk of bodily heat generated through cellular metabolism and muscle motion is still lost, innovative devices are finding ways to capture and repurpose small amounts. Thermoelectric generators and biomechanical energy harvesters show particular promise to partially power wearables and portable electronics. Larger scale applications are also possible. If you found this overview intriguing, monitoring emerging developments in this field may reveal opportunities to harness your own thermal energy in the future.